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1.6. The Digital Euro and the Difficult Task of a European Payment Infrastructure

When making digital payments, have you ever given a thought to the underlying infrastructure – the back end of these payments? The details of these complex private “traffic routes” are rarely known to those who do not deal with them in their professional lives. Now, however, it looks like the digital euro is breaking completely new ground. Now, at the latest, it is worth taking a closer look.

As long as the payment systems operate reliably and are not a significant cost factor, they are of secondary importance to citizens and their everyday use of money. It is often only when people have to make transfers to non-European countries that they realize that payments are a business – and that the low-cost accessibility of the infrastructures on which they are processed is not simply a given. In this episode, the Digitalgelddickicht therefore takes a closer look at what lies underneath digital payments.

The infrastructure required for the digital euro is to be built from scratch: What kind of work does this mean for the ECB? How should commercial banks, which will have to process these payments, prepare for this? If the digital euro enters an already competitive business area, what challenges and opportunities does this present for banks and citizens? And will the progress made by the European Payments Initiative in offering a private European payment solution be a game changer?

Season 1 Digital Euro -Episode 6 | 12 February 2024

Guests

Manuel Klein is Product Manager Blockchain Solutions & Digital Currencies at Corporate Bank of Deutsche Bank. In this position, he also analyses the potential impact of central bank digital currencies on the banking sector.

Prof. Dr. Barbara Brandl is Professor of Sociology with a focus on Organization and Economy» at the Goethe-Universität Frankfurt. She is member of the ZEVEDI Project Group Tokenized Finance».

Dr. Andreas Bley is chief economist of the National Association of German Cooperative Banks (BVR).

Marek Jessen is a researcher in the ZEVEDI project Money as Data» and research fellow at the Weizenbaum Institute, Berlin.

Further Information

Maurer, Bill: How Would You Like to Pay? How Technology Is Changing the Future of Money, Duke University Press: Durham und London, 2015.

Bechtel, Alexander and Klein, Manuel: Der digitale Euro ist mehr als nur Geld, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 25 October 2023.

European Central Bank: A stocktake on the digital euro.Summary report on the investigation phase and outlook on the next phase, 18 October 2023.

European Central Bank: Call for Application: Digital Euro – Risk and Fraud Management, 3 January 2024.

Panetta, Fabio: Letter to several MEPs on the request to postpone the decision on digital euro, 6 October 2023.

Panetta, Fabio: Letter to Irene Tinagli, ECON Chair, on ECB Governing Council decision to proceed to preparation phase of the digital euro project, 18 October 2023.

Bitcoin, Fiat & Rock’n Roll, Episode 254 / Manuel Klein : Blockchain-Token, UTXOs und Accounts – was ist das eigentlich?, 11 September 2023.

European Commission: Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and European Council on the Establishment of a Digital Euro», 28 June 2023.

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1.5. Digital Euro – Commercial Banks in Danger?

After clarifying the relationship between the digital euro and competing or related means of payment, the focus of this episode shifts to those financial institutions whose business model the digital euro could complement, change or call into question: the commercial banks.

With a view of the possible introduction of the digital euro, representatives of commercial banks warn against an ill-considered change to the existing economic and financial order. Voices criticizing the status quo, on the other hand, see digital central bank money as a possible antidote to the vulnerability of our financial system to crises – less as a remedy for banks and more as a guarantee of greater security for citizens.

In this first of two episodes on the relationship between the digital euro and commercial banks, we examine the extent to which a digital euro could transform or disrupt the well-established division of labor between central and commercial banks. Are digital bank runs really to be feared or are they much ado about nothing?

To find out, we spoke to representatives of the National Association of German Cooperative Banks (BVR) and Deutsche Bank. We also evaluated a range of different statements and a hearing of experts on the topic in Brussels at the end of November.

Seasn Digital Euro – Episode 5| 22 December 2023

Guests

Dr. Andreas Bley is chief economist of the National Association of German Cooperative Banks (BVR).

Jens Holeczek is Head of the Digital Payment Unit National Association of German Cooperative Banks (BVR).

Manuel Klein ist Product Manager Blockchain Solutions & Digital Currencies at Corporate Bank of Deutsche Bank. In this position, he also analyses the potential impact of central bank digital currencies on the banking sector.

Prof. Dr. Sebastian Omlor is Professor for Private Law, Commercial and Business Law, Banking Law, and Comparative Law» at the Philipps-Universität Marburg und Founding Director of the Marburg Institute on the Law of Digitization (IRDi)». An important research focus of his are legal issues of the digitized financial sector. He leads the ZEVEDI project group Tokenization and Finance».

Weiterführende Informationen und Quellen

National Federation of German Cooperative Banks (BVR)»

LinkedIn Profile of the BVR»

• Position of the German Banking Industry Committee on the Legislative Proposal of the EU Commission for the Introduction of a Digital Euro, 28 June 2023: German banking industry calls for political guard rails for a digital euro».

• National Federation of German Cooperative Banks (in German): Die Digitalisierung des Euro: Chancen nutzen, Risiken begrenzen. Zielbild für ein europäisches Geldsystem der Zukunft», BVR-Position 2/2023.

Deutsche Bundesbank: Payment behavior in Germany 2021», 2022.

Osman, Yasemin ( in German only), Digitaler Euro – Eine Gefahr für kleine Banken?», Handelsblatt, 8 March 2023.

European Commission: Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and European Council on the Establishment of a Digital Euro», 28 June 2023.

Veblen Institute for Economic Reform und Positive Money Europe: A Digital Euro for the People», Position Paper, June 2022, pp.11-12.

German Banking Industry Committee (German only): Erste Stellungnahme zum Legislativvorschlag der EU-Kommission zum digitalen Euro vom 28.06.2023», August 2023.

Event Site of Public Hearing on the Digital Euro in the European Parliament’s Committee on Economicand Monetary Affairs, 28 November 2023: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/committees/en/public-hearing-on-digital-euro/product-details/20231121CHE12405

Intrductory Statements of all four experts invited for the hearing:

Ignazio Angeloni» (SAFE, Frankfurt am Main, und EHI, Florenz)

Miguel Fernández Ordóñez»

Marieke van Berkel», European Association of Co-Operative Banks (EACB)

Vicky van Eyck», , Positive Money Europe

Also see the Youtube video of the Statement» Vicky van Eyck gave during the public hearing on behalf of Positive Money Europe.

Video of the Panel Discussion Digital Euro – Pro und Con» (German only), 18 July 2022 as final event ofthe Citizen Lecture Series “Do you understand Cryto?” at the TechnischeUniversität Darmstadt with Marcus Härtel, Market Infrastructure Expert of the European Central Bank.

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1.4. The Digital Euro – How the Stablecoin of a Social Media Platform challenges State Currencies

When Facebook (now Meta) initiated a global stablecoin project called Libra in 2019, governments, federal banks and regulators around the world were alarmed. The plan for a global digital money issued by the world’s biggest social network met resistance by regulators on both sides of the Atlantic. After all, it could potentially have been used by billions worldwide. The project was ultimately abandoned.

While it is not used as a common argument for or against a digital euro any more, the Libra project sent shock waves around the world and caused the ECB to accelerate research into and planning for the digital Euro. In this episode, eFin & Democracy therefore takes a look at how and why it affected the European and other CBDC endeavours: What is a stablecoin? How would the Libra stablecoin have worked? What hopes and fears were associated with Libra – and with private-sector stablecoins in general? And what tasks have arisen from this with regard to the regulation of crypto assets on the one hand and digital central bank money on the other?

Season Digital Euro – Episode 4 (in German) / 7 Dezember 2023

Guests

Dr. Jonas Gross is an economist». Having earned his PhD at the University of Bayreuth with a thesis on the monetary economy and digital currencies, he is co-founder and chairman of the Digital Euro Association, and Chief Operating Officer at etonec, a business offering blockchain-based payment solutions.

Prof. Dr. Sebastian Omlor is Professor for Private Law, Commercial and Business Law, Banking Law, and Comparative Law» at the Philipps-Universität Marburg und Founding Director of the Marburg Institute on the Law of Digitization (IRDi)». An important research focus of his are legal issues of the digitized financial sector. He leads the ZEVEDI project group Tokenization and Finance».

Moritz Hütten is a financial sociologist», reserach coordinator at the Darmstadt Business School and a graduate student at the University of Amsterdam.

Claus George is Head of Digitalization and Innovation TxB at DZ BANK AG, focussing on new means of payment and forms of money.

Prof.Dr. Barbara Brandl is Professor for Sociology with a focus on Organization and Economy» at the Goethe-Universität Frankfurt. She is member of the ZEVEDI Project Group Tokenized Finance».

Cornelia Manger-Nestler is Professor for German and International Business Law» at the HTWK Leipzig.

Further information

European Central Bank, Crypto Asset Task Force:  Stablecoins: Implications for monetarypolicy, financial stability, market infrastructure and payments, and banking supervision in the euro area, Occasional Paper Series, No. 247, September 2020. Find the pdf here».

John Oliver: Cryptocurrencies II ( Episode of 24 April 2023): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o7zazuy_UfI

Hannah Murphy and Kiran Stacey: Facebook Libra: the inside story of how the company’s cryptocurrency dream died, Facebook Libra: the inside story of how the company’s cryptocurrency dream died», Financial Times, 10 March 2022.

Claus George:  Digital Payments – Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow, Lecture (in German), 25 Aril 2022, within the Public Lecture Series „Do you understand Crypto?“ at  TU Darmstadt in 2022.

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“Wert / Value/Valeur” – Widerstreit zwischen Moral und Preis

Lecture Series / Citizen Lecture
Continuously, starting 18 October 2023, 6:00 pm

Technische Universität Darmstadt
Lecture Hall S 313/30, Darmstadt Castle

Event within the framework of the ZEVEDI Project “Democracy Issues of the Digitalised Finance Sector” in Cooperation with the Institute of Philosophy at the TU Darmstadt (German only).

The lecture series illuminates the genesis and intricacies of the concept of value. Particularly from a philosophical, but also from a sociological, legal, economic and historical point of view the different lecturers will look at current debates about values, price and tokens, how these are affected by the digital transformation and how values have shifted with regard to ecology.

Programme

Date Lecturer Title
18.10.23 Petra Gehring (Philosophy, TU Darmstadt / ZEVEDI) Werte zur Einführung
25.10.23 Sophie Loidolt (Philosophy, TU Darmstadt) (Zur) Wertethik bei Husserl und Scheler
01.11.23

Marcus Düwell (Philosophy, TU Darmstadt)

Braucht die Moral Werte? Zur ambivalenten Rolle des Wertbegriffs in der Ethik
08.11.23 Andreas Kaminski (Philosophy, TU Darmstadt) Vertrauenswert und Vertrauenswürde
15.11.23 Oliver Schlaudt (Philosophy, Universität Heidelberg) Müll. Die dunkle Seite des Werts
22.11.23 Anne Krüger (Sociology, Weizenbaum Institute Berlin) Werten und Bewerten – eine soziologische Perspektive
29.11.23 Andreas Kerkemeyer ( Public Law, TU Darmstadt) Preis & Wert – Rekonstruktion einer Paarbeziehung
06.12.23 Bernward Gesang (Philosophy, University of Mannheim) Welchen Beitrag leistet der Utilitarismus zur Klimadebatte?
13.12.23 Jens Kertscher (Philosophy, TU Darmstadt) Dichte (Wert)begriffe und praktisches Selbstverständnis
10.01.24 Martin Diehl (Deutsche Bundesbank) Der Preis der Werte und der Wert des Preises
17.01.24 Jan Müller (Philosophy, University of Basel) Werten, schätzen – oder: Werte wahrnehmen?
24.01.24 Christian Benne (History of Ideas, University of Copenhagen) Geld und Gebärde. Mit Nietzsche über Werte nachdenken
31.01.24 Marc Rölli (Philosophy, HGB Leipzig) Über den Mehrwert der Spekulation. Überlegungen im Feld philosophisch-ökonomischer Mehrdeutigkeiten
07.02.24 Aaron Sahr (Economic Sociology, Hamburg Institute for Social Research) Geld und Wert – zwischen ökonomischer Macht und politischer Herrschaft

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Responsible algorithmic decision-making in the workplace

Interdisciplinary Lecture Series

Continuously, beginning on Monday, 30 October 2023

Online via Zoom (Zoom links see programme)

Algorithmic decision-making (or “ADM”) already has a significant impact on how our modern workplace is organised, whether it be through the selection of new hires, managing employees in their daily business, or assisting human decision-makers in the context of complex problems.

Against this background, the project group Responsible Algorithmic Decision Making in the Workplace is organising a series of lectures that will look at these developments from an interdisciplinary and international perspective. Among other things, the following questions will be addressed: How should work contexts shaped by ADM be designed to promote responsible treatment of workers? What technical, organisational and regulatory framework conditions should be established in such contexts?

programme

go to project group Responsible Algorithmic Decision Making in the Workplace»

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Fachdialog: Auswirkungen des EU AI Act auf die Banken- und Finanzbranche

Interdisciplinary Workshop

20 November 2023, 15:30 – 19:00 CET
KI Park Berlin

With the AI Act, the EU wants to comprehensively regulate Artificial Intelligence for the first time. However, the cross-sectional conception of the AI Act raises the question of its interaction with other legal frameworks and the effects in concrete areas of application of AI.

Against this background, the project group NOKI is hosting a high-level workshop. The spotlight will be on the interfaces between the AI Act and data economy law, specifically in the context of the banking and finance industry.

The workshop offers the opportunity to get a comprehensive understanding from four perspectives – banking, FinTech, regulation and technology. In the first part of the event, legislative experts will give an insider’s view of the current developments and considerations around the AI Act. This will be followed by a panel discussion which will explore the practical implications of the legislation, particularly with regard to the use of data resources.

Monday, 20 November 2023, 15:30 – 19:00 CET

Please note: The workshop will be held in German.

Registration until 1 November 2023 (see programme)

programme

to ZEVEDI project group Regulatory theories of Artificial Intelligence»

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1.3. The Digital Euro and the Crypto Boom

The introduction of a digital central bank currency (CBDC) is imminent in the EU. But exactly how a digital euro will be designed and when it will be introduced is still an open question.  While the political process is slowly gathering momentum, a discussion of the considerations surrounding the introduction of a CBDC directed explicitly at a lay audience,  is scarce.

The first two episodes on cash (episode 1) and digital payments (episode 2) have dealt extensively with the relationship of a digital euro to everyday payment options. In this episode, eFin & Democracy is dedicated to the less mundane and often controversial world of cryptocurrencies, their genesis and evolution – and looks at it from a CBDC perspective. Since Bitcoin burst onto the scene in 2008, its and other crypto assets’ notorious price volatility, immense power consumption, involvement in fraud and crime have given rise to skepticism. Nevertheless, they are now a fixture of the digitized financial sector worldwide.

In this episode, Digitalgelddickicht explores the beginnings of Bitcoin, its original motivation and innovation potential. It discusses why, despite the fundamental difference or even contrary conception of crypto assets and CBDCs, novel means such as blockchain technology and smart contracts have sprung from the crypto world and are now understood to be groundbreaking far beyond it. And to what extent they have also captured the traditional financial sector, promising greater efficiency, security and transparency, and to that extent also affect considerations for a CBDC.

Staffel Digitaler Euro – Episode 3 | 25 September 2023

Gäste

Dr. Martin Diehl, is a lead analyst at the Deutsche Bundesbank». An economist (M.A. econ.) and philosopher by education, he received his PhD at the, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen in Macroeconomics. he is working at the Deutsche Bundesbank since 1998. After three years as its representative in China, he is leading the section on payment systems analysis since 2008. He is particularly interested in the infrastructures of the finance market, specifically the role of new technologies such as the Distributed-Ledger-Technology, crypto tokens and CBDCs.

Lecture The social and semiotic construct “Money”. An Introduction und the lecture Central Banks between Strategic Relevance, Political Independence and Democratic Control» (German only),both in the context of the Citizen Lecture Verstehen Sie Krypto at the Technische Universität Darmstadt, co-organized by Dr. Martin Diehl and Prof. Dr. Petra Gehring in 2022.

Prof. Dr. Sebastian Omlor is Professor for Private Law, Commercial and Business Law, Banking Law, and Comparative Law» at the Philipps-Universität Marburg und Founding Director of the Marburg Institute on the Law of Digitization (IRDi)». An important research focus of his are legal issues of the digitized financial sector. He leads the ZEVEDI project group Tokenization and Finance».

The full video interview with Sebastian Omlor about his research and blockchain law specifically, made within the context of the Mercator-Journalist Residency of Rainer Lind, can be found here (German only).
You can also find a videotape of his lecture Democratic Blockchain Algorithms: from „Code is Law“ to „Law in Code”» (German only) in the context of the citizen lecture Verstehen Sie Krypto at the Technische Universität Darmstadt in 2022.

Sarah Palurovic is an economist, tutor und research associate at the Frankfurt School Blockchain Center (FSBC)» at the Frankfurt School of Finance und Management. She is also executive director of the Digital Euro Association (DEA) und Co-Host of the DEA Podcasts.

Dr. Jonas Gross is an economist». Having earned his PhD at the University of Bayreuth with a thesis on the monetary economy and digital currencies, he is co_founder and chairman of the Digital Euro Association, Co-Host of the Podcast Bitcoin Fiat & Rock’n Roll and Chief Operating Officer at etonec, a business offering blockchain-based payment solutions.

Further Information and Sources

The video interview with Sebastian Z, Bitcoiner, made within the Mercator-Journalist Residency of Rainer Lind can be found here» (German only).

ECB Website: FAQs on a digital Euro» (see Question 22).

Proposal of the European Commission for a Regulation by the European Parliament and the European Council on the establishment of a digital Euro, 28 June 2023.

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Modelling, Simulation, Optimization – the Digitalization of our Energy Supply Network

Our everyday life is built on the certainty that electricity will be reliably available at all times. Fluctuations or even failures are not foreseen. When we are not dealing with disaster prevention or imagining doomsday scenarios, we rarely think about how vulnerable we are in our dependence on energy supply. Especially gas grids are not only huge and complex, but they change and require permanent readjustment and stabilisation. Further developing and optimising the energy grid with a view to new energy sources and changing priorities, monitoring its function and making it resilient to a multitude of risks is a highly complex task: we not only want to understand how different energy sources interact, but we also need to make reliable predictions and must be able to react immediately if something unexpected happens. This requires physical models, mathematical methods and data analysis – also in real time. Simulations and calculations take into account developments on the global energy market, the weather and the condition of the pipelines as well as the quality of energy sources or the consumption of industry and private households. How do you make this multi-dimensional system manageable?

Prof. Dr Alexander Martin is a mathematician. He heads the ADA Lovelace Center for Analytics, Data and Applications at the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS and is founding vice president of the Technische Universität Nürnberg. In his work, he deals with modelling and simulation in optimisation issues and brings “Artificial Intelligence” into application. In this episode of Digitalgespräch, the expert explains how our energy network is structured and what considerations underlie the models and methods with which he and his colleagues work. He describes the benefits of digitalisation, what data is needed and where AI can come into play. With hosts Marlene Görger and Petra Gehring Martin discusses which objectives and political debates influence the development of the gas network – and which economic and ecological costs are associated with the collection, storage and use of data.

Folge 41: Digitalgespräch feat. Alexander Martin of Technische Universität Nürnberg, 19 September 2023
Further informationen:

Link to the profile of Alexander Martin on the webseite of the Technische Universität Nürnberg: To the profile of Alexander Martin on the website of the Nuremberg University of Technology: https://www.utn.de/person/prof-alexander-martin/

Link to the website of the ADA Lovelace Center for Analytics, Data and Applications at the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS: https://www.scs.fraunhofer.de/en/focus-projects/ada-center.html

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1.2. The Digital Euro – “CBDC” and Online Payments

A new money is entering the world: central bank digital currencies, known in technical jargon short as CBDCs. The probability that we will have and use such money in a few years is quite high: in the Eurosystem this would be the so-called digital Euro. But what such CBDCs are for, is often unclear.

We rarely think about what happens underneath when we hold our devices or cards up to the payment device or click on this or that payment option on the Internet. But in order to get an idea of the potential of a CBDC, it is worth taking a look behind the scenes..

In this episode, eFin & Democracy takes a closer look at digital payments and gets to the bottom of the argument that a digital euro secures European sovereignty and independence. The historical background of today’s monetary system, the first steps of digital payments in the post-war period and how Europe differs from the United States when it comes to digital payments are addressed by Frankfurt-based economic sociologist Barbara Brandl. The fact that the prominent payment service providers and main drivers of digital innovation are seated in the United States has recently raised skepticism. At the same time, new global players are entering the scene. China is also working on setting up its currency as an attractive digital payment infrastructure. In this context, the “digital euro” project is particularly important, explains Carola Westermeier, who researches financial infrastructures, geopolitics and security from the perspective of political economy.

The Digitalgelddickicht discusses which needs Europe might specifically have with regard to payments. Since we use a global payment network on a daily basis, with 1. no significant major European player around and 2. with only private providers to choose amongst: Is there a need for a European infrastructure or a public alternative?

Season Digital Euro – Episode 2 | 27 July 2023

Guests

Prof.Dr. Barbara Brandl is Professor of Sociology with a focus on Organization and Economy» at the Goethe-Universität Frankfurt. She is member of the ZEVEDI Project Group Tokenized Finance».

Dr. Carola Westermeier is a lecturer and researcher at the Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen». She co-leads the research project Financial Infrastructures and Geoeconomic Security» mit. She is involved with the discourse project„Democracy Issues of the Digitalized Financial Sectore“ and also a member of the ZEVEDI Project Group Tokenized Finance».

Cederic Meier is a researcher at the Department of State Theory, Political Science and Comparative Constitutional Law at the Georg-August University of Göttingen and conducts in-depth research on constitutional and monetary law issues related to digitalization. Under the working title “Constitutional Issues of the Digital Euro” he is working on his PhD with Prof. Dr. Florian Meinel.
> See also his contribution on the eFin-Blog (German only): Quo vadis digitaler Euro?»

Dr. Jonas Gross is an economist with expertise in the field of crypto assets and central bank digital currencies». He has written his PhD at the Universität Bayreuth on Monetary Economy and Digital Currencies. He is Co-Founder and Chairman of the Digital Euro Association (DEA), Co-Host of the Podcast Bitcoin, Fiat & Rock’n Roll as well as Chief Operating Officer at etonec, a company offering blockchain based payment solutions.

> Particularly recommendable and informative with regard to the digital euro is his podcast interview with Jan Ceyssens, Head of Unit in the Directorate General for Financial Stability, Financial Services and Capital Markets Union of the EU Commission, on the European Commission’s legislative proposal (German only): https://www.bfrr.de/der-gesetzesvorschlag-der-eu-kommission-zum-digitalen-euro-interview-mit-jan-ceyssens/ (10 July 2023).

Weiterführende Informationen und Quellen:

Proposal by the European Commission for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the Establishment of the digital euro», 28 June 2023.

Page on the „Digital Euro Package“ of the European Commission: https://finance.ec.europa.eu/publications/digital-euro-package_en

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Teaching and Learning after the Pandemic: The Difficult Transformation of Digital Schooling

Digitisation in public sector institutions takes place under different conditions than digital innovations in the private sector or at home. There is a great gap between what has obviously been technically possible for a long time and what is being implemented in public schools, for example. Also great: The resentment that some people feel about this situation. And when it comes to children’s education and future opportunities, improving the status quo seems particularly urgent. The pandemic has shown that under the pressure of school closures – and with exceptions and special regulations in place – suddenly a great deal was possible where nothing had moved for decades before. However: privacy, data protection and data sovereignty are still important values. Our society cannot and should not simply give them up – even if, at first glance, digitally enhanced teachingworks better with Microsoft Teams, WhatsApp, Zoom and Co. than with data protection-compliant open source solutions and our own data centres. How do we get out of this dilemma?

Jan Marco Leimeister is Professor of Business Informatics at the Universities of Kassel and St. Gallen. The expert for change management and innovation processes has his eye on the Hessian schools as well as the workplace and adult education. In this episode of Digitalgespräch, he talks about insights from his observations – as a scientist who identifies structures and lines of conflict, and also as a father who has experienced a high level of digitalisation in all areas of life while being abroad with his children in Singapore. With hosts Marlene Görger and Petra Gehring, he discusses how digitisation can actually enhance teaching, where the responsibility for these transformation processes lies – and whether Singapore can serve as a model for us when it comes to digitisation in schools.

Episode 39 of Digitalgespräch, feat. Jan Marco Leimeister of Universität Kassel, 18 July 2023
Further informationen:

Link to the report and guidelines “Einführung eines DSGVO-konformen Videokonferenzsystems an hessischen Schulen.” from the project by the same name, which is discussed in the podcast: https://kobra.uni-kassel.de/handle/123456789/14514

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